TOPIC 01: Black Tourmaline...
Want Powerful Protection Against Negative Energy?
Black Tourmaline crystal is a
powerful stone for protection against negative energy of all kinds...
as well as being a strong spiritual grounding stone. This is one of
the most popular crystals to be used for metaphysical purposes. Many
people, and I am amongst this group... believe this is the best protection
stone that you can use. It is powerful
for healing and for psychic protection and spiritual purposes... and
will strengthen the immune system and help allergies. It encourages
positive attitudes, good luck and happiness, regardless of the circumstances
that you find yourself in. They are wonderful aids to both the professional
healer and the average person who wants a stone that will be a positive
force for good in your life... as it creates a positive attitude and
Why Would You Use It
Black Tourmaline crystals are strong stones of the two lowest chakras,
which are the earth star chakra and the base chakra... as they are powerful
stones for grounding. You all have times when you feel negative... or
when you encounter other people who are giving off vibrations that are
not pleasing to you. It will also act to protect you against psychic
attack and negative entities. In addition these stones will purify the
area where they are located. You all live with a lot of electro-magnetic
smog... including your televisions, computers and the large number of
other electrical devices that seem to be essential these days, just
to live your life.
One of the most powerful things about Black tourmaline is that it will
suck up any negativity or disharmony that it encounters from its surroundings.
But it does not absorb it... but will transmute... or convert the negative
energy into positive energy.
How To Use It
Although wearing stones as jewelry is the easiest way to keep a piece
of the stone on your body, if this is not possible keep a piece of the
stone in the room with you... as this is very helpful. Once you have
learned easy meditation techniques, you may also wish to use one of
these stones in meditation. They will help you to let go of negativity
and self doubts or any feelings of anxiety or negativity of any kind.
For spiritual grounding and during a grounding meditation these are
a wonderful ally in the process.
It is easy to buy a piece of Black
Tourmaline stone... and having the vibration of it within your aura
for as long as possible is to your advantage. If it is not possible
for you to have them on you during the day... it would be advantageous,
to at least have a couple of these stones in the bedroom.
Putting one of these crystals
under your pillow will cleanse your etheric body while you sleep...
as well as the room where you are sleeping. It will strengthen the immune
system and assist pain relief of arthritis... and the relief of spinal
or muscular problems.
The good thing about this stone
is that it does not absorb negativity... but changes or alters it or
transmutes it into positive energy. This means it improves the vibration
of the air where it is located. Keeping it in the bedroom will help
you to sleep better and wake more refreshed.
Where Does It Come From
Black Tourmaline has been found in a large number of locations... including
Pakistan, Australia, Brazil, Sri Lanka, Africa and the USA.
It is also known as Schorl Tourmaline.
Although it is known as the black variety of tourmaline... not all of
the black stones are black... but are a very dark blue color... although
it is hard to tell the difference.
This is a powerful asset to your health, as it not only removes the
negative energy but by changing it to positive energy it has an excellent
effect on your well-being!
Wearing This Black Stone
Keeping a piece of this stone on you at all times is highly recommended.
Although Black Tourmaline jewelry is not as common as the other colors
of Tourmaline... it is possible to buy very nice pendants made from
the stone. One of the reason it is not so common, is because much of
this stone is not stable enough to cut into cabochons... but the Australian
stone is highly stable. Lovely Black Tourmaline pendants can be bought...
including nice pieces made from Australian stone... or pendants that
are rough stones set in silver or even beads. Whatever type you buy,
wearing it is very beneficial.
The solid and stable stone from
the Flinders Ranges in Australia, can be cut into lovely checker cut
pieces... like the one in the photo... and they make beautiful pendants.
As jewelry made from these black stones is becoming available, these
powerful black stones are now on the Zodiac Birthstones list. They are
also a Capricorn birthstone so you may find lovely Birthstone jewelry
containing this stone. I know that there are stones that send back the
negative energy... but this stone will not do that. Even though some
people believe Black Tourmaline will do that... instead it changes it
to positive energy.
The best stone to use to send negative energy back to where it came
from is Fire Agate... especially Crackled Fire Agate. Who
Should Use It
Stress is so prevalent amongst all of us... that we all should probably
have a piece of Black Tourmaline... as they supply useful ways to relieve
stress. Tourmaline will help you to release stress, and if you are prone
to obsessive behavior, it is a powerful ally to help you to disconnect
from these activities. Some time ago, scientists
came out in the media discussing the issues around the vibrations emanating
from electrical devices and cell phones.
The discussion centered around
the negative effect on your body's electrical system, that these emit.
It was recommended for that reason
that you should try to have your nights rest in an area where you have
as few electrical devices as possible. This is hard to do. Adding some
Black Tourmaline crystals to the bedroom will aid you to regulate your
body's electrical system. If you do a lot of spiritual work, or have
strong psychic powers and you use these abilities quite a lot... you
may become ungrounded. Black Tourmaline will also ground you quite quickly.This
is one of the stones that I always keep in my pocket... or wear as jewelry,
along with a few others, both for psychic protection and grounding.If
you acquire a small cloth bag... and many crystal shops sell them, you
can put your crystals in your pocket easily each day.
TOPIC 2: Tourmaline is a crystal
boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron,
magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium. Tourmaline is classified as
a semi-precious stone and the gem comes in a wide variety of colors.
The name comes from the Sinhalese word "Thuramali" or "Thoramalli"
, which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka.
Brightly colored Sri Lankan gem tourmalines were brought to Europe in
great quantities by the Dutch East India Company to satisfy a demand
for curiosities and gems. At the time it was not realised that schorl
and tourmaline were the same mineral.
Tourmaline species and varieties
Dravite species: from the Drave district of Carinthia Dark yellow to
Schorl species: Bluish or brownish black to Black—schorl
Elbaite species: named after the island of Elba, Italy Red or pinkish-red—rubellite
variety (from ruby)
Dark black—schorl (from indigo)
Light blue to bluish green—Brazilian indicolite variety
Green—verdelite or Brazilian emerald variety
The most common species of tourmaline is schorl. It may account for
95% or more of all tourmaline in nature. The early history of the mineral
schorl shows that the name "schorl" was in use prior to 1400
because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony, Germany) was
then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name). This
village had a nearby tin mine where, in addition to cassiterite, black
tourmaline was found. The first description of schorl with the name
"schürl" and its occurrence (various tin mines in the
Saxony Ore Mountains) was written by Johannes Mathesius (1504–1565)
in 1562 under the title "Sarepta oder Bergpostill". Up
to about 1600, additional names used in the German language were "Schurel",
"Schörle", and "Schurl". Beginning in the 18th
century, the name Schörl was mainly used in the German-speaking
area. In English, the names shorl and shirl were used in the 18th century.
In the 19th century the names common schorl, schörl, schorl and
iron tourmaline were used in the Anglo-Saxon area. The word tourmaline
has two etymologies, both from the Sinhalese word turamali, meaning
"stone attracting ash" (a reference to its pyroelectric properties)
or according to other sources "mixed gemstones".
Black Dravite on a grey matrix
The name dravite was used for the first time by Gustav Tschermak (1836–1927),
Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography at the University of Vienna,
in his book Lehrbuch der Mineralogie (published in 1884) for magnesium-rich
(and sodium-rich) tourmaline from the village Unterdrauburg, Drava river
area, Carinthia, Austro-Hungarian Empire. Today this tourmaline locality
(type locality for dravite) at the village Dravograd (near Dobrova pri
Dravogradu), is a part of the Republic of Slovenia. Tschermak gave
this tourmaline the name dravite, for the Drava river area, which is
the district along the Drava River (in German: Drau, in Latin: Drave)
in Austria and Slovenia. The chemical composition which was given by
Tschermak in 1884 for this dravite approximately corresponds to the
formula NaMg3(Al,Mg)6B3Si6O27(OH), which is in good agreement (except
for the OH content) with the endmember formula of dravite as known today.
A lithium-tourmaline (elbaite) was one of three pegmatitic minerals
from Utö, Sweden, in which the new alkali element lithium (Li)
was determined in 1818 by Arfwedson for the first time. Elba Island,
Italy, was one of the first localities where colored and colorless Li-tourmalines
were extensively chemically analysed. In 1850 Rammelsberg described
fluorine (F) in tourmaline for the first time. In 1870 he proved that
all varieties of tourmaline contain chemically bound water. In 1889
Scharitzer proposed the substitution of (OH) by F in red Li-tourmaline
from Sušice, Czech Republic. In 1914 Vernadsky proposed the name Elbait
for lithium-, sodium-, and aluminum-rich tourmaline from Elba Island,
Italy, with the simplified formula (Li,Na)HAl6B2Si4O21. Most likely
the type material for elbaite was found at Fonte del Prete, San Piero
in Campo, Campo nell'Elba, Elba Island, Livorno Province, Tuscany, Italy.
In 1933 Winchell published an updated formula for elbaite, H8Na2Li3Al3B6Al12Si12O62,
which is commonly used to date written as Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(BO3)3[Si6O18](OH)3(OH).
The first crystal structure determination of a Li-rich tourmaline was
published in 1972 by Donnay and Barton, performed on a pink elbaite
from San Diego County, California, USA.
Chemical composition of the tourmaline group
The tourmaline mineral group is chemically one of the most complicated
groups of silicate minerals. Its composition varies widely because of
isomorphous replacement (solid solution),.
Large pink elbaite crystal on quartz, Cryo-Genie
Mine, San Diego Co., California, USA.
The 14 recognized minerals in the group (endmember formulas)
Tri-color elbaite crystals on quartz, Himalaya
Mine, San Diego Co., California, USA
Tourmaline belongs to the trigonal crystal system and occurs as long,
slender to thick prismatic and columnar crystals that are usually triangular
in cross-section. The style of termination at the ends of crystals is
asymmetrical, called hemimorphism. Small slender prismatic crystals
are common in a fine-grained granite called aplite, often forming radial
daisy-like patterns. Tourmaline is distinguished by its three-sided
prisms; no other common mineral has three sides. Prisms faces often
have heavy vertical striations that produce a rounded triangular effect.
Tourmaline is rarely perfectly euhedral. An exception was the fine dravite
tourmalines of Yinnietharra, in western Australia. The deposit was discovered
in the 1970s, but is now exhausted. All hemimorphic crystals are piezoelectric,
and are often pyroelectric as well.
Tourmaline gemstones - Mozambique
Tourmaline has a variety of colors. Usually, iron-rich tourmalines are
black to bluish-black to deep brown, while magnesium-rich varieties
are brown to yellow, and lithium-rich tourmalines are almost any color:
blue, green, red, yellow, pink, etc. Rarely, it is colorless. Bi-colored
and multicolored crystals are common, reflecting variations of fluid
chemistry during crystallization. Crystals may be green at one end and
pink at the other, or green on the outside and pink inside; this type
is called watermelon tourmaline. Some forms of tourmaline are dichroic,
in that they change color when viewed from different directions.
Physics explains color in terms of the wavelength of radiation. A spectrograph
that only identifies the position of spectral lines will perfectly differentiate
between a radiation at 0.530 µm and another at 0.532 µm,
where our eyes will only perceive the same green.
The pink color of tourmalines from many fields is the result of a continued
natural irradiation. During their growth, these tourmalines incorporate
Mn2+, whereas initially they are by nature very pale. Their granitic
environment exposes to them a natural gamma ray exposure due to radioactive
decay of 40K, causing the gradual formation of the Mn3+ ions responsible
for a pink to red color.
Some tourmaline gems, especially pink to red colored stones, are altered
by irradiation to improve their color. Irradiation is almost impossible
to detect in tourmalines, and does not impact the value. Heavily-included
tourmalines, such as rubellite and Brazilian paraiba, are sometimes
clarity-enhanced. A clarity-enhanced tourmaline (especially paraiba)
is worth much less than a non-treated gem.
Tourmaline is found in granite and granite pegmatites and in metamorphic
rocks such as schist and marble. Schorl and lithium-rich tourmalines
are usually found in granite and granite pegmatite. Magnesium-rich tourmalines,
dravites, are generally restricted to schists and marble. Tourmaline
is a durable mineral and can be found in minor amounts as grains in
sandstone and conglomerate, and is part of the ZTR index for highly-weathered
Bi-colored tourmaline crystal,
0.8 inches (2 cm) long.
Gem and specimen tourmaline is mined chiefly in Brazil and Africa. Some
placer material suitable for gem use comes from Sri Lanka. In addition
to Brazil, tourmaline is mined in Tanzania, Nigeria, Kenya, Madagascar,
Mozambique, Namibia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Malawi.
Some fine gems and specimen material has been produced in the United
States, with the first discoveries in 1822, in the state of Maine. California
became a large producer of tourmaline in the early 1900s. The Maine
deposits tend to produce crystals in raspberry pink-red as well as minty
greens. The California deposits are known for bright pinks, as well
as bicolors. During the early 1900s, Maine and California were the world's
largest producers of gem tourmalines. The Empress Dowager Tz'u Hsi of
China loved pink tourmaline and bought large quantities for gemstones
and carvings from the then new Himalaya Mine, located in San Diego County,
California. It is not clear when the first tourmaline was found in
California. Native Americans have used pink and green tourmaline as
funeral gifts for centuries. The first documented case was in 1890 when
Charles Russel Orcutt found pink tourmaline at what later became the
Stewart Mine at Pala, San Diego.
Watermelon Tourmaline mineral
on quartz matrix (crystal approximately 2 cm wide at face)
Almost every color of tourmaline can be found in Brazil, especially
in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais and Bahia. In 1989, miners discovered
a unique and brightly colored variety of tourmaline in the state of
Paraíba. The new type of tourmaline, which soon became known
as paraiba tourmaline, came in unusually vivid blues and greens. These
colors were often described as "neon" since they appeared
to glow. Brazilian paraiba tourmaline is usually heavily included. Much
of the paraiba tourmaline from Brazil actually comes from the neighboring
state of Rio Grande do Norte. Material from Rio Grande do Norte is often
somewhat less intense in color, but many fine gems are found there.
It was determined that the element copper was important in the coloration
of the stone.
In the late 1990s, copper-containing tourmaline was found in Nigeria.
The material was generally paler and less saturated than the Brazilian
materials, although the material generally was much less included. A
more recent African discovery from Mozambique has also produced beautiful
tourmaline colored by copper, similar to the Brazilian paraiba. While
its colors are somewhat less bright than top Brazilian material, Mozambique
paraiba is often less included and has been found in larger sizes. The
Mozambique paraiba material usually is more intensely colored than the
Nigerian. There is a significant overlap in color and clarity with Mozambique
paraiba and Brazilian paraiba, especially with the material from Rio
Grande do Norte. While less expensive than top quality Brazilian paraiba,
some Mozambique material sells for well over $5,000 per carat, which
still is extremely high compared to other tourmalines.
Another highly valuable variety is chrome tourmaline, a rare type of
dravite tourmaline from Tanzania. Chrome tourmaline is a rich green
color due to the presence of chromium atoms in the crystal; chromium
also produces the green color of emeralds. Of the standard elbaite colors,
blue indicolite gems are typically the most valuable, followed by green
verdelite and pink to red rubellite. There are also
yellow tourmalines, sometimes known as canary tourmaline. Zambia is
rich in both red and yellow tourmaline, which are relatively inexpensive
in that country. Ironically the rarest variety, colorless achroite,
is not appreciated and is the least expensive of the transparent tourmalines.
Extra fine indicolite (blue tourmaline) and verdelite (green tourmaline)
are found in the Nuristan region (Ghazi Abad district) and Pech Valley
(Pech and Chapa Dara districts) of Kunar province. Gem-quality tourmalines
are faceted (cut) from 0.50–10 gram sizes and have unusually high clarity
and intense shades of color.